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Canadian schools began teaching Canadian literature in more detail. This development was not supported universally, however. There was concern over lack of literature, teaching resources and qualified teachers. Other critics worried that the study of Canadian literature would become too popular, thereby displacing and distracting scholars and readers from engaging with the British literary tradition.

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Her popular study demonstrated the depth and value of Canadian literature to a country that was interested in its own identity. Survival resulted in debates about how one should study Canadian literature: Atwood and other thematic critics John Moss, D. Following the Centennial, after the first wave of baby boomers reached their 20s, signs of civil dissatisfaction began to appear; these, too, affected the arts. Ethnic heritage, already heterogeneous in colonial times — Canada was never a monoculture — became a more prevalent literary concern during these decades: numerous works of fiction engaged with Italian , Hungarian , Czech , Ukrainian , West Indian s ee Caribbean People , Jewish and Chilean heritage see Latin Americans.

By the s, these social changes had helped produce a working, though by no means uniform, or unanimously accepted, multicultural society. In fact, critics of Canadian multiculturalism argued that its focus on culture downplayed the material inequalities that many non-dominant communities faced on a day-to-day basis.

George Woodcock wrote a history of intellectual anarchism. George Grant published his conservative treatises Lament for a Nation and Technology and Empire , which opposed the technological Americanization of Canada. Henry Kreisel wrote of his experience in a Canadian detention camp during the Second World War published in White Pelican, and Clark Blaise and Bharati Mukherjee in a dual account of a year they spent in Calcutta.

Several other writers focused on an individual historical figure as an icon of significant psychological and historical moment: playwrights Carol Bolt and John Gray respectively dramatized the political implications of the lives of Emma Goldman and Billy Bishop. Herschel Hardin, George Ryga and Michael Cook wrote plays dealing with the isolation of First Nations women or the problems connected with Euro-Canadian colonization of the north. Kinsella and Margaret Laurence. At the same time, there was an outpouring of Aboriginal writing that engaged with colonialism and its effects on contemporary communities.

Much writing about the land engaged with Indigenous issues, but authors also approached the land by way of the emerging global environmental movement. Canadians played a significant role in this movement: the important environmental group Greenpeace was created in Vancouver in to dispute nuclear testing and world renowned environmentalist David Suzuki began to broadcast on scientific issues during the s.

Based on a real-life event that took place in Burgeo, Newfoundland, where Mowat was then living, this book was, perhaps unsurprisingly, ill received by other town residents. She considers the migrating salmon as well as the large group of Japanese-Canadians who returned after being interned during the Second World War and the accompanying racism, sexism and environmental degradation found in this industrial area. Her early work, including The Tomorrow-Tamer and Other Stories , sensitive both to traditional tale-telling and the impact of modern history, emerged from years she spent in East and West Africa.

Subsequent work addressed the lives of women in Manawaka, a fictionalized version of Neepawa, Manitoba. By demonstrating how to tell her own stories — the stories that emerged from local places and expressed the local voice — Laurence actively encouraged the writers of the next generation, including Jack Hodgins , Joan Barfoot and the numerous accomplished storytellers who illuminated the lives of women during these decades and beyond, writing about sisters in families, mothers and daughters, women alone, childbirth and aging, wives and health and madness on the Prairies and elsewhere.

Blood is a stream-of-consciousness account of a stillbirth — recurs in her later fictions, including Intertidal Life and Coming Down from Wa Ranging across literary modes, they incrementally established her substantial international reputation: as a consummate lyricist, a contemporary narrative voice and a fiercely articulate champion of social justice. Blaise as in A North American Education , emerged as the pre-eminent practitioner of the five. Still other fiction looked for indirect ways to express social commitments, drawing on the growing influence of mythopoeic thought and countercultural narratives.

In other modes, W. Pierre's with anecdote.

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At once raucous romp and serious comment on the appeal of extravagant illusion, these works explore the sexuality of desire, the passion of memory and the boundary lines of marriage and romance. Canadian literature, while nationalist in regards to certain themes and its institutionalization, was heterogeneous in its engagement with genres, techniques and topics.

It is the tension between the overwhelming influence of cultural nationalism and a myriad of other local, regional and international social and artistic concerns that define Canadian literature between and Daymond and Leslie Monkman, eds. So also did William Bartram in his Travels , although Bartram directed his interest more toward the native fauna and, especially, flora.

The Red Eagle: A Poem of the South European-American conflict with Native Americans and specifically the Creek War of was the subject of more traditional literary efforts, both poetry and prose and both serious and not.


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A quite different kind of book—humorous, satiric short stories—was Johnson Jones Hooper's widely read Some Adventures of Captain Simon Suggs , which grew out of the turbulent period of Indian removal in Coming out of the state many years later was the nationally embraced The Education of Little Tree , which appeared to be a poignant autobiographical account of a modern Cherokee Indian boy.

In fact, it was a literary hoax written not by "Forrest Carter" but by Asa Carter , a white supremacist who authored Gov. Beyond the violent early confrontation with Native Americans, warfare has occupied an unusually large number of writers with Alabama connections.

Despite Mobile's being known as the "Capital of Lost Cause Poetry" in the later nineteenth century, the literary impact of the Civil War was diffuse and divergent. Alabama native and Confederate veteran Kittrell J.

Warren's Life and Public Services of an Army Straggler, a burlesque parody of soldiering, also appeared in More sympathetically southern were Augusta Jane Evans Wilson's Macaria and the novels of the Confederate veteran brothers Sidney and Clifford Lanier: Tiger-Lilies and Thorn-Fruit, respectively both written in Montgomery , which reflected their combat experiences. Also in that vein was Mary Anne Cruse's Cameron Hall: A Story of the Civil War , written during the war and focusing on the devastated home front; it found a northern publisher in A decorated combat Marine in World War I , William March in his Company K produced one of the most internationally powerful novels written about that war.

Sledge did autobiographically in his acclaimed memoir With the Old Breed at Peleliu and Okinawa Korean War veteran William E. Butterworth, the most prolific writer to live in Alabama in the twentieth century, has sold millions of books of military fiction and nonfiction, many under the pseudonym of W. Dealing with armed battle on a smaller scale, Tom Franklin's Hell at the Breech is an impressive contemporary novel based on the so-called Mitcham War , a bloody confrontation between social classes in Clarke County in the s.

Soft-Shelled Turtle William Bartram's famous Travels created a fertile legacy for the state, realized in the nonfiction subgenres of nature writing, travel literature, and autobiography. Another engaging volume of nature writing and talented illustration , this time by a British sojourner in Alabama, is Letters from Alabama, Chiefly Relating to Natural History by Philip Henry Gosse, who was a plantation schoolmaster in the state in Edward O. Wilson , internationally acclaimed entomologist, provocative ecologist, evolutionary theorist, and two-time Pulitzer Prize winner, has authored a number of books, including the memoir Naturalist A different type of nature writing marked by its more personal essay form, Tom Kelly's The Tenth Legion is a distinctively toned, appropriately passionate, and finely crafted book about the art of turkey hunting.

Philip Henry Gosse Philip Henry Gosse also wrote perceptively about the human inhabitants of Alabama, as did another sojourner, Anne Royall , who produced a book with the same title as his, Letters from Alabama , in The subtitle of Royall's book, however, was On Various Subjects , fitting and predictive for an author who was one of the first women in the United States to succeed as a muckraking journalist in Washington, D.

Social critic and sometime Florence resident Rebecca Harding Davis is best known for her novel Life in the Iron-Mills, set in Massachusetts, but she also wrote perceptively about the New South in her serialized work "Here and There in the South," which appeared in Harper's New Monthly Magazine in and was set in Alabama.

Both written by native Alabamians, Daniel R. Hundley's Social Relations in Our Southern States provided incisive social and cultural analysis in very readable prose, and Clarence Cason's 90 Degrees in the Shade did the same thing the following century.

Proletarian Literature Reconsidered - Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Literature

A nonnative but residential perspective was offered in Carl Carmer's best-selling Stars Fell on Alabama , while a nonresident's travel back to his home state yielded the very rich South to a Very Old Place by Albert Murray. The work combines Agee's powerful prose with Evans's stark photographs and is an artful tour de force that defies conventional classification. Alabamians also have written about their travels elsewhere. The most prominent nineteenth-century example is Octavia Walton Le Vert's two-volume Souvenirs of Travel about Europe, which, ironically, attracted famous visitors from all over the world to her salon in Mobile.

Montgomery-born syndicated columnist Rheta Grimsley Johnson has published her affecting accounts of other U. An earlier example is the Reminiscences of a Long Life by poet, politician, and publisher William Russell Smith , who has been called "the father of Alabama literature. Chestnut, and Rosa Parks. Delbridge's Family Bible in It was a forerunner of other popular young-reader books featuring minorities to come out of the state, including writer-illustrator Annie Vaughan Weaver's Frawg Ultimately, many quite different works of juvenile, adolescent, or young adult literature were to follow.

Their authors, both black and white—and a number of them the winners of special awards in these publication fields over the years—include Maud McKnight Lindsay , Rose B.

Alice Walker (b. 1944)

Drama is one of the few areas of literary activity in Alabama that has not proved so fertile. Field helped theater and drama to flourish in many antebellum communities. Today, the state is home to several fine theatre companies, with some commissioning local writers; however, few Alabama playwrights have found national audiences for their work. Kate Porter Lewis , whose "Alabama folkplays" were produced by the Carolina Players, was perhaps the chief exception until, recently, Rebecca Gilman's award-winning dramas began to be produced in New York and London as well as in Chicago, her current home.

Simon Suggs Jr. Field also wrote comic prose tales and sketches that place them among the so-called Old Southwest humorists, writers of a rowdy frontier literature and satiric social realism that gained both national and international readerships and that had Alabama as its center, geographically and otherwise. Hardin E. Its heritage is clear in some of Alabama's own best writers after the nineteenth century—William March, Eugene Walter , and Tom Franklin, for instance.

Alabama has had important participants in many of the movements of American literary history, particularly those involving fiction. Caroline Lee Hentz and, especially, Augusta Jane Evans Wilson were stars in the mid-nineteenth-century vogue of the so-called domestic-sentimental novel, the best-sellers of their day.


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In the late nineteenth century, Samuel Minturn Peck , a state Poet Laureate , and John Trotwood Moore joined authors from across the nation in securing national readers for "local-color" stories about their home regions. The Store Although their reputations have not proved as enduring as those of some writers from other southern states who created the southern literary renaissance and the Harlem renaissance of the s and s, authors from Alabama played noteworthy roles in these movements.

Stribling earned wide praise for his critical social realism in a trilogy of novels— The Forge , The Store winner of the Pulitzer Prize , and Unfinished Cathedral. In these works, Stribling told the extended story of a family over historical time in north Alabama, just as William Faulkner did in north Mississippi. Remembered mostly because of his first and last novels, Company K and The Bad Seed , both shocking in their different ways, March was an ironic writer who worked particularly well in short fiction. He was often compared with Faulkner in contemporary reviews, and at least one British critic thought March far superior.

Henderson was trained as a printer at Tuskegee Institute , close to where he was born, and in published Ollie Miss, a novel whose strong title character has been compared to the protagonist of Hurston's masterpiece, Their Eyes Were Watching God.