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So, it is obvious that the fiber connection will be first choice for backhaul if it is available otherwise we have to look for other backhaul solution that meets the requirements of 5G networks. Support the backhaul traffic from radio switch to cell site wirelessly i. Wireless backhaul e. However, the optimal selection among wireless backhaul solution depends on several factors that includes cell site location, propagation environment, desired traffic volume, interference conditions, cost efficiency, energy efficiency, hardware requirements, and the availability of spectrum [ 24 ].

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This subsection describes the available wireless backhaul solution that can be used for small cell backhaul in 5G networks. It typically operates in the 6, 11, 18, 23, and 28 GHz frequency bands. So, microwave RF can be deployed at a much lower cost and the deployment time is much faster compared to fiber connection. However, the performance of microwave RF backhaul solution significantly varies with the propagation environment and bad weather condition.

Often the system need to lower the transmission rate to maintain the availability requirements.

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For examples, if we use lower frequency band we can achieve longer reach but lower frequency bands are congested and may not be available for backhaul solution. On the other hand, if we use higher frequency we can have higher date rate but the system has to sacrifice the long reach. Microwave RF system capacity can be increased up to 10 Gbps for long and medium distance connectivity by utilizing wider channel spacing e.

So the millimeter wave RF can become prominent for small cell backhaul solution due its enormous spectrum [ 32 ]. Besides, smaller wavelengths will enable the integration of large number of antennas in a simple configuration and small cell can take this advantage of massive MIMO for LOS or non-LOS backhaul solutions. Typically, millimeter wave RF can support high data rate up to 1—2 Gbps range but the reach is shorter compared to Microwave RF due to the high propagation loss at millimeter wave [ 16 ].

The major factor that causes propagation loss includes, absorption, rain fading, and multipath propagation. Typically, the millimeter wave beams are much narrower compared to microwave beams that creates a major constraint which is line of sight LOS backhaul solution. Free space optics FSO is a line of sight backhaul technology which is similar as fiber optics except FSO uses invisible beam of light e.

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FSO has enormous spectrum in the range of GHz to 1 THz and the maximum data rate can support up to 10 Gbps both upstream and downstream [ 16 ]. But FSO system has number of constraints that includes LOS communication, fading due to fog, interference due to ambient light, scattering and physical obstructions. However, FSO technology can be one of the possible solution for 5G backhaul due to its scalability and flexibility [ 33 ].

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Although there are some other wireless backhaul solutions e. This is the main reason not to add much details about this two backhaul technologies. The available features e. Wireless backhaul solutions [ 16 , 23 , 33 ]. As it is seen from Table 2 , FSO provides highest throughput with lowest latency which is the basic requirements of 5G backhaul.

This is the main motivation of this paper where FSO is used for 5G backhaul networks with addition of ambient light cancelation technique at the receiver, described in Section 4. According to the use cases, services, and network requirements of 5G, the next generation mobile network will not only human centric. This network will allow to connect new type of devices that support machine-to-machine M2M services and Internet of Things IoT.

Therefore, the backhaul network must meet diverse network requirements based on the type of user traffic, such as, some user traffic may care more about the maximum network speed not latency and on the contrary the users may care about the low latency not the speed. So, it is obvious that there will be no unique backhaul solution for 5G networks. Based on the deployment area and user traffic, the 5G backhaul network will be a combination of wired e.

Thus, understanding the basic backhaul network requirements is the key to choose the right technology and type of network. In an effort, this book chapter first introduce the backhaul network perspective for 2G, 3G, and 4G networks and then outlines the backhaul requirements of 5G networks. This chapter also describes the available backhaul solutions and describes the key challenges. Licensee IntechOpen. This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3. Help us write another book on this subject and reach those readers. Login to your personal dashboard for more detailed statistics on your publications.

Edited by Abdelfatteh Haidine. Edited by Zhichao Lian. We are IntechOpen, the world's leading publisher of Open Access books. Built by scientists, for scientists.

White Space Communication

Our readership spans scientists, professors, researchers, librarians, and students, as well as business professionals. Downloaded: Abstract 5G is the next generation cellular networks which is expected to quench the ever-ending thirst of data rates and interconnect billions of smart devices to support not only human centric traffic, but also machine centric traffic. Keywords 5G mobile backhaul network wired backhaul wireless backhaul microwave millimeter wave free space optics. Introduction to mobile backhaul network and evolution The mobile backhaul network connects radio access network air interfaces at the cell sites to the inner core network which ensures the network connectivity of the end user e.

Table 1. Capacity The evolution of 5G cellular network is positioned to address new services and demands for business contexts of and beyond [ 29 ].

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Availability Availability is the major consideration for any backhaul networks, if the backhaul services are not in operation the system performance are negatively affected. Deployment cost requirements Cellular network provider has to spend billions of dollars each year to acquire wireless spectrum for building excellent network coverage [ 23 ].

Long distance reach requirements Reach defines how far a cell site can get backhaul support from the core network with the required quality of service. Available mobile backhaul solutions and key challenges Small cell backhaul requirements e. Wired backhaul solution A compressive study of wired backhaul solution is presented in [ 16 ].

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Wireless backhaul solutions Support the backhaul traffic from radio switch to cell site wirelessly i. Abbott, Frank Frost Taylor, Thomas Marris A enough and quantitative download white space communication: advances, of Rome. The Senate of Imperial Rome. Village Center with its shops, restaurants, and commuter rail.

Whether you are new to Concord or a longtime resident, Warner Woods is an inviting neighborhood community to call home. Return to Book Page. David Lloyd Johnson Editor. This monograph presents the major developments towards the implementation of whitespace radio.

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Whitespace communication is a new standard for digital communication technology which based on the existing analog TV bands. The standards have been released introducing cognitive communication. Since the introduction of the standards, this has gathered a lot of research and deve This monograph presents the major developments towards the implementation of whitespace radio. Since the introduction of the standards, this has gathered a lot of research and development efforts.

The main reason for the popularity of Whitespace technologies are two fold.

First of all it can support much wider cells and hence can be used in sparsely populated areas. Secondly, it leverages well upon the two major fields of current communication research, viz. Whitespace is deemed to be a technology of choice for sparsely populated developing countries. In this aspect it is expected to be a solution for Africa In that manner, the rural area treatment of the subject in the book makes it very practical oriented. Get A Copy. Paperback , pages.

Published September 10th by Springer first published October 26th